The calendar reform and introduction of leap years
In the beginning, all calendars were lunar and guided by the monthly lunar cycle. When Julius Caesar visited Egypt, he fell in love with Cleopatra and immersed himself in Egyptian culture and scientific teachings.
When he returned to Rome, he brought with him the desire to correct the then outdated Roman Calendar and replace it with a model that followed the path of the sun. In this calendar the Roman astronomers inserted leap years, but they occured on average every 3 years.
His new Roman calendar, also called the Julian Calendar was introduced in Rome on the 1st of January 45B.C. and for centuries this model stood its test of time. But during the Middle Ages, it became apparent that the Julian Calendar was no longer totally accurate.
In the early 13th century A.D. an English friar named Roger Bacon calculated that the solar year was actually 11 minutes longer than Julius Caesar’s astronomers had calculated. By 1267 this had amounted to around nine days. Bacon wrote to Pope Clement IV and asked that the church should correct the calendar. If this issue was left unfixed the months would shift to such an extent that the holy days of Easter and Christmas would fall into a completely different seasons.
Pope Clement IV was very interested and asked Bacon to send his findings to the Vatican. Over the next year Bacon set off to compose his theories in a manuscript he called Opus Maius (Major Work). In this work he set out (amongst many other topics) to prove that the current way solstices and equinoxes were calculated had gone completely out of sync with the true seasons and a calendar reform was badly needed.
Sadly for Bacon Pope Clement IV died in 1268 before he could read or evaluate this important document. His successor Gregory X was less sympathetic and Bacon’s book became largely forgotten. But the friar did not rest and kept publishing his demands for calendar reform. In 1277 these calls landed him in prison and his ‘dangerous teachings’ were deemed to be heretic and were largely suppressed by the Catholic church.
It took almost another 300 years before Roger Bacon’s demand finally got taken seriously. Around 1573 Pope Gregory XIII appointed a calendar commission to look into the lost days. By this point it had amounted to 11.5 days.
This commission was led by the mathematician Christopher Clavius who directed work on the commission, but the main author was a physician called Aloysius Lilius (sometimes referred to as Luigi Lilio) who comprehended the papal bull that Gregory would issue on 24 February 1582. Unfortunately Lilio would not see his work to fruition and passed away in 1576, leaving Clavius to credit his work and drive the commission to completion.
The final product – the still used Gregorian Calendar – has now the correct length of year which corresponds exactly with the solistices and equinoxes and the year stays in complete sync with the season. The leap year correction added a day to the shortest month of the year – February – so every 4 years now February counts for 29days instead of the customary 28.
Most of you know probably know the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle Diddle The cat and the fiddle, The cow jumped over the moon. The little dog laughed, To see such sport, And the dish ran away with the spoon.
I always pondered particularly at the line ‘ The cow jumped over the moon’, thinking it was just silly little nursery rhyme to pacify children who would not want to go to sleep. But in fact, there there is a theory that ‘the cow jumped over the moon’ related to the Ancient Goddess Hathor and was probably badly translated from Ancient Greek texts and put into a nursery rhyme.
I recently visited Knossos, the birthplace of the Minoan civilization. For all of you that have not heard much about this place, Knossos was the largest Minoan royal palace, situated in Crete.
The Minoans were the first major culture in Europe ( 2700 to 1450 B.C.) to worship only one God. They left behind palaces, advanced pieces of pottery, fantastic jewelry and many unsolved mysteries. Below you can see the throne room where ‘King Minos’ reigned in the palace that is famous for its Minotaur.
The Minoan had a lunisolar calendar
They were the first monotheist society and their god was a woman – similar to later Demeter – the Mother Earth
I undertook a tour at the famous ruins and towards the end of the tour I asked where was the famous labyrinth and the guide answered – you are standing in it – it was the palace itself. It had so many rooms that foreign visitors saw it as a labyrinth. My remaining question of course was – and where was the Minotaur?
According to legend, Minos prayed to Poseidon to send him a snow-white bull as a sign of support and as offering to the Goddess. But Minos did not slaughter the bull but kept it instead alive. So Poseidon punished him by making Minos’ wife Pasiphae fall in love with the bull and conceive an offspring called the Minotaur, half man – half bull.
The bull was always very connected to the Minoan culture. There are still frescos preserved which show young athletes, male and female, jump over a bull. But why would a bull jump over the moon?
Babylonian calendar records exist that points to a very possible Minoan connection and suggest that the existence of the lunisolar calendar and solar and lunar phenomena were recorded more than a thousand years before the Babylonians and came from the Minoans in Crete.
A rich and seafaring civilization such as the Minoans would have had a calendar system of sorts and would have traded with Egypt, the Phoenicians and Sumerians. Furthermore, King Minos was not one person, but a title, such as Ceasar or Pharoah. So there were many King Minos and their time in office was limited to one big lunisolar cycle, lasting around 8 years. Then a new King Minos would come into office. The most likely explanation is the octagonal cycle that occurs every 8 years when Venus completes her cycle and returns in its original position at the same point in the sky. As no firm calendar records survive we can only speculate.
But it would totally correspond with the practices of other cultures, including the Mayans. They also used the Venus cycle (when the path of Venus, the Earth and the sun align) together with the lunar phases to calculate the synodic period of Venus (584 days). The ratio of the earth cycle to Venus is 8:5. So 5 Venus years and 8 Earth years coincide, making this a marker when the sky resets to its original position. This is quite significant in a time when there were no other ways of recording precise timings.
So coming back to the cow and the moon. The Minotaur most likely represented the worship of the sun and the moon. The mother goddess = nature, represented by the 8-year cycle where the Sun, the Earth and Venus perfectly aligned again – and the Moon God (represented by a bull with 2 horns showing the Waxing and the Waning Moon and the moon cycle). The monster Minotaur was most probably a ritual involving bulls and sacrifices in the palace of Knossos. This was followed by sporting events, a sort of blueprint of the later Olympic Games.
But why is the cow jumping over the moon and not the other way round? The bull-jumping has certainly something to do with it. We know that the Minoans build their palaces to align with the solstices and the winter solstice seems to have had a particular significance, as it symbolized the rebirth of the sun.
The star Orion, ‘the bull of the sky’, is visible in the Northern Hemisphere between November and February and rises over the crescent of the winter moons. Could that be the cow jumping over the moon?
The moon has been the Earth’s nocturnal companion for around 4.5 billion years. There are a few theories about how the moon was formed. The most convincing one to date is the Theia impact theory. Around 4.5 billion years ago the new earth collided with an astronomical body the size of Mars. This impact was so great that a lot of debris flew off and formed the current moon. In contrast to the earth, the moon has a lower density than the earth and a relatively small iron core.
Today the moon is responsible to keep the earth axes to a stable, 23.4 degrees. This provides us with a fairly mild weather pattern throughout the year and a temperate climate. Mars, for example, has no stabilizing moon and the weather is totally unpredictable. One day could be very hot and the next very cold. Without the moon, there would be no seasons and regulated day and night. In short, the moon’s stabilizing influence makes life on earth possible.
Lunar gravitation is greater on the side facing the moon and that creates the tides. The moon rotates around the earth and the gravitational pull travels with it forming on average 2 high and 2 low tides per day.
Additionally, this tidal friction slows the earth rotation down and keeps it to a 24-hour rhythm.
Here is a time-line and some interesting facts about this fascinating celestial body:
4.5 billion years ago the moon was formed
The similar time scale of the human fertility cycle and moon cycle did not go unnoticed. The first primitive moon calendars appeared around 30,000 B.C. usually carved into wooden pieces and animal bones.
The horn (symbolizing the lunar crescent) has always been a fertility symbol.
Most cultures portrayed the moon as ‘female’ as it is connected to water (the tides), night and fertility.
People carved little statues of a moon goddess and prayed to it. The most commonly known ones were Isis (Egypt), Selene, Artemis, Hekate (Greece) and Luna in Rome.
The goddess Luna was celebrated on the night of a Full Moon. Then predominately women got together and ate moon-shaped cakes.
Statues of moon goddesses were found the world over. From Central Africa, Egypt, Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire and finally they came to Europe. Many churches, especially those dedicated to Mary, are usually built on ancient pagan shrines, all honoring the moon goddess – Artemis, Diana, Luna, Isis, Kybele and whatever else she was called.
In the Middle Ages, herb women still practiced pagan health care rituals and herbal lore. Many providing basic healthcare and delivered babies.
On the 20th July 1969 three astronauts from the Apollo 11 NASA space program landed on the moon. These brave men were Neil Armstrong, the first man ever to set foot on the moon. The second man on the moon was Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins remained on Appollo 11 throughout the mission and was the first man to see the dark side of the moon.
The mission started at the Nasa space station in Houston on the 16th July 1969 and it took 4 days to get to the moon. The astronauts landed safely again on the 24th July 1969.
A small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind
Neil Armstrong’s words as he stepped on the lunar surface for the first time.
After successfully completing the mission, the men had to stay in quarantine until the 10th August 1969 to assure that they came back with a clean bill of health before they could be released to celebrate their achievement with the American nation.
The moon landing has always fascinated me and it looks like that we are on the cusp of a second ‘moon age’ where commercial space travel is made possible in the not too distant future. Watch this space!
This article explains how the origins of the Easter tradition, which remains to this day a lunar festistval
Easter’s changing date
In 325AD the first major church council, the Council of Nicaea, determined that Easter should fall on the Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox.
That is why the date moves and why Easter festivities are often referred to as “moveable feasts”. There’s a defined period between March 25 and April 25 on which Easter Sunday must fall, and that’s determined by the movement of the planets, the sun and of course the moon.
In most countries in Europe, the name for Easter is derived from the Jewish festival of Passover. You can still see it in the various names like Paques (French), Pasqua (Italian) or Paaske (Danish).
But in English-speaking countries, and in Germany, Easter takes its name from a pagan goddess from Anglo-Saxon England who was described in a book by the eighth-century English monk Bede.
Eostre was a goddess of spring or renewal and that’s why her feast is attached to the spring equinox. So in English we refer to it as Easter and in Germany as Ostern (as there the goddess of spring was called Ostara)
What has the Easter bunny rabbit got to do with it all?
Many of the pagan customs associated with the celebration of spring eventually became absorbed within Christianity as symbols of the resurrection of Jesus. In spring nature ‘resurrects’ and a new cycle of growth begins. Signsof fertility of these boosts of fertility are eggs (as many creature hatch from eggs) and rabbits – due to their prolific breeding.
So put all this together and mash it up and there is a reason why Christ ‘resurrects’ at Easter and commercially we use Easter eggs and bunnies as our Easter symbols.
“Eggs, as a symbol of new life, became a common people’s explanation of the resurrection; after the chill of the winter months, nature was coming to life again,” explains Professor Cusack, a professor of Sydney University
During the Middle Ages, people began decorating eggs and eating them as a treat following mass on Easter Sunday after fasting through Lent.
“This is actually something that still happens, especially in eastern European countries like Poland, but also Austria and Germany have stong folkloric tradition to decorate hard-boiled eggs with colour.
According to Carole Cusack, the first association of the rabbit with Easter was mentioned in a book by German professor of medicine Georg Franck von Franckenau published in 1722.
“He recalls a folklore that hares would hide the coloured eggs that children hunted for, which suggests to us that as early as the 18th century, decorated eggs were hidden in gardens for egg hunts. A tradition that has survived until now.